Bandhavgarh: A little bit of history, some things that tigers like to eat and more.

At the heart of Bandhavgarh National park, high on a narrow plateau, there are ruins of ancient temples and Bandhavgarh Fort. In mythology, the fort of Bandhavgarh is a token of love from lord Rama for his younger brother, Lakshman (Choudhary, 2016). Bandhav means brother and Garh means fort. The fort is considered sacred by devotees of Vishnu.

Bandhavgarh Sunrise 21st April 2017

Sunrise at Bandhavgarh

Man-made caves and inscriptions suggest there has been settlement in this area from BC. From the third to fifth centuries there are written records of the dynasties ruling from this Fort. In the sixth century the area saw three dynasties – the Sengers, the Kalchuris and the Baghels (Choudhary, 2016).


For a long time Bandhavgarh was a game reserve for the maharajahs of Rewa. Eventually the ecological significance of the area was realised and the maharajahs granted the land to the State government. It was declared a National Park in 1968.

Bandhavgarh plateau

There are three main types of plant communities (habitats) throughout the park, Sal forests, mixed forest and grasslands. There are also streams and springs which provided much needed water for wildlife throughout the dry season. These are supplemented with some managed waterholes which provide a safety net of water for the larger mammals and help to keep animals dispersed throughout the park and therefore reduces the threat of poaching and poisoning.

Spotted and Sambar deer are two of the most common herbivores throughout the park. Barking deer are rarer and more solitary.


Spotted deer


Spotted deer


Sambar deer

Sambar deer amongst bamboo

Sambar male

Muntjak or Barking deer

Female Muntjak or Barking deer

Male Muntjak getting a drink

Male Muntjak at a waterhole

There are two types of monkeys – Grey Langur and Rhesus Macaque. In urban areas the Rhesus macaque is common. This changes in Bandhavgarh. You come across Langurs more frequently.


Rhesus macaque

Rhesus macaque in Bandhavgarh

Rhesus macaque

Group of Langurs in dry riverbed

Grey Langurs in riverbed

Langur flopped in tree, Bandhavgarh NP, India 2

Grey Langur response to the heat

Langur mother and baby


Langurs - just chillin with Mum

Just chillin with Mum

There is also a rich diversity of bird life in Bandhargarh National Park. Here is just a small selection. Vultures, a bee-eater, a Malabar Pied Hornbill, Crested Serpent Eagle. You can click on this images to enlarge them.

There is of course the iconic bird of India – the peacock. Here it is displaying in it’s natural habitat. Far from the manicured lawns of English stately houses!

Every corner and every new foray into Bandhavgarh revealed something new!

On our last safari we were taken to the ancient caves carved out of the rock. These were inhabited by lots of bats. Then along the road up to the fort we passed more caves, shallow cuts into the hillside – stables for the maharajah’s horses. Finally we visited Sheshsaiya. A grove of tall, old trees. Statues of the trinity, Lord Brahma, Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva set within a pool fed by a perennial spring. A magical soothing place.

Choudhary, L. K. 2016. Fort of the Tiger: Bandhavgarh. Sarahbhi Books Associates, Bhopal, India.

Bandhavgarh Sunset

Sunset at Bandhavgarh


Return to India: Dehli via Singapore

I had my first visit to India in March 2009. The World conference on Tobacco and Health held in Mumbai. I was keen return to see more of India. So in April this year we set off in the school holidays to see a few of India’s most famous sites and some iconic wildlife. Air New Zealand in co-operation with Singapore Airlines gets you from Auckland to Dehli via my favourite airport, Changi. The warm, water-logged air declares itself as a bombastic, unmissable welcome every time you step into Singapore. I find it an antidote after 10 hours of dessicating, recirculated air. The transit hotel complete with pool, showers, spa and beds you can rent by the hour isn’t the only reviving delight offered. There is a butterfly garden, multiple imaginative amusements for children and if you are in transit long enough there is a free city tour. Standing out on this trip to Singapore were hanging gardens built into some of the city’s high rise blocks.

Just as the jet lag haze starts to imbue you with thoughts that Changi is some kind of heaven on earth – you start to feel hungry. The tantalising aromas of hot noodle soups draws you upstairs to a food court. This is where the fun begins. It isn’t a question of just rocking up to the counter, selecting, ordering then paying. No the system requires you to make your choices, add up the cost of your selection (in Singapore dollars then convert to $NZD), find the booth where you buy a token and credit your token with the amount needed to cover all your choices. Return to all the different counters that the various members of your family chose their meals from and place your orders – hoping you’ve done your sums correctly and that your children remember what they chose. You get sent back to the token booth, chided and unable to place the order if your credit is under!

Singapore to Dehli is about five hours. We arrived late in the evening. Outside the airport we stepped into a warm night, the hazy smoggy air and were surrounded by people and dogs. Some languidly reclined in groups chatting on small section of airport lawn, surrounded on all sides by roads and a constant stream of beeping and farting airport traffic. The route to the hotel, The Royal Plaza, took us through well appointed New Dehli, past consulates, manicured, lushly planted median strips and government house. There is no shortage of greenery throughout Dehli.

View from 17th floor Royal Plaza, Dehli, April 2017

View of New Dehli from Hotel, The Royal Plaza.

We had a spectacular view across Dehli. Our first taste of Indian wildlife was the oft overlooked urban wildlife, which thrives amongst city hustle and bustle. Black kites take advantage of the thermals rising amidst the concrete monoliths. A pair had a nest in the tree below our window. Ring necked parakeets clustered on the window ledges and rooves of high rise buildings. House crows with their handsome grey headscarves, dark eyes and showy beak frills patrolled the grounds. Indian palm squirrels dashed around in brief spurts then flaked out, exhaused, in the heat.

We caught the Dehli metro from the station near our hotel, Patel Chowk to Chadni Chowk station. There is a short walk through a mayhem of market stalls, tuk tuks, cycle rickshaws, taxis, motorcycles, cycles, to the Red Fort or Lal Qila. The final challenge is a road crossing which will make a frogger champion of you. This palace was host to the embers of the Moghul Empire in India.

The entrance is via the Lahori gate and a covered market (Chhatta Chowk). There is a hall of public audience, halls of private audience, expansive lawns and an “air-conditioning system” which was a network of water channels and ponds throughout the grounds. The buildings are constructed of richly red sandstone and marble. On the royal ‘throne’ in the hall of public audience and columns throughout the halls of private residence the marble has beautiful floral imagery. It isn’t painted – it is created by inlaying precious and semi-precious stones into the marble. The workmanship is mind blowing. Finally there is a mosque for the emperor.

Our next expedition was to Sultanpur National Park on the rural outskirts of Dehli. This wetland reserve is home to many beautiful bird species and Nilgai antelope. I was particularly delighted by the profusion of dragonflies. There were red ones, electric green and blue ones but the only one I managed to get a half decent photo of was a rather drab brown and black one! The next day we headed to Agra via an early morning train. More later…

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Blyth’s pipit

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Black-winged stilts (left and right) and a pheasant-tailed jacana (middle) showing us its bum

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Nilgai or Blue Bull

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Nilgai in shade at Sultanpur

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Sultanpur National Park, near Dehli, India